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Grupo de Materiales Fotovoltaicos

Photovoltaic Materials Group at UAM

The Photovoltaic Materials (PVM) group at UAM is integrated by the Full professor Dr. Máximo León, Professor Dr. José Manuel Merino, Ramon y Cajal researcher (I3 and “in extension”) Dr. Ana Raquel Caballero,  a postdoctoral fellow Leonor de la Cueva and the technician Samanta García.

The PVM group has a large experience in the development and analysis of materials for photovoltaic applications, such as Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) or Ag(In,Ga)Se2 and kesterite Cu2Zn(Sn,Ge)(Se,S)4 to be used as absorber material of thin-film solar cells. In addition, the group also has experience in the development of CdS deposited by chemical bath and related compounds for buffer layers. This experience includes the synthesis of both bulk and thin films by the Bridgman method of multinary compounds and their structural and optoelectronic characterization by various and different techniques: XRD, EDX, SEM, optical reflectance and transmittance, ellipsometric spectroscopy, photoluminescence, resistivity and Hall effect measurements. The group has also a significant experience in the thin film deposition with several evaporation techniques (thermal, e-beam, flash, co-evaporation) among which the flash and co-evaporation methods have been extensively used to deposit Cu(Ga,In)Se2 thin films for solar cells and, in the last years, to deposit kesterite thin films for similar applications.

In the last five years, the group has worked mainly in the search for new materials of low toxicity, low cost and abundant in the earth's crust for PV applications. Among them, we must highlight the work done in the fabrication of kesterite bulk material grown by a modified Bridgman method as well as single crystals to study the fundamental properties of this material, contributing to the knowledge about it to transfer it to the implementation of a PV device. More recently, the group is focused on the growth of wide band-gap absorber layers suitable for high efficiency PV devices, opening new markets opportunities and broadening the fields of applications. These wide ban-gap absorber layers can be used not only for tandem devices, but also for semi-transparent solar cells for efficient and stable Building Integrated PV (BIPV) concepts. The group has been working in Cu2ZnSn1-xGex(S,Se)4 (CZTGeSSe) thin fims, where the partial substitution of Sn by Ge increases the gap of the semiconductor, could lead to higher open circuit voltage Voc and efficiencies. This gap engineering of CZTGeSSe allows to be used as a component of a multi-junction device. CZTGeS and CZTS thin films were grown by flash evaporation followed by thermal treatment under the presence of S and Ar atmosphere. It was investigated the deposition of high quality CZTGeS using a single-stage growth process, reducing the costs of fabrication. Furthermore, CZTS were grown by a novel rapid thermal process and thermal treatment, leading to efficiencies of about 3 %. In the last five years, Prof. León and Dr. Caballero participated in the design, assembly and set-up of a new co-evaporation system, which was built in the workshops of the university. The growth of wide band-gap kesterite thin films by partial replacement of Sn by Ge and/or Se by S deposited by co-evaporation of Cu2Zn(Sn,Ge)Se4 followed by sulfurization in Ar atmosphere has been one of the main goals of Dr. Caballero in the last years. Solar cells based on kesterite with Eg = 1.5 eV and 1 eV have been fabricated using the absorber grown by co-evaporation. Efficiencies near 7 % have been achieved on soda-lime glass substrates and 5.5 % on ceramic substrates without using antireflection coating and grids and without post-thermal treatment. The role of alkaline elements such as Na and Li on the formation of the kesterite and the efficiency of the final solar cell has also been the object of the research line leaded by Dr. Caballero. Dr. Caballero investigated the effect of alkaline elements, Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs and the alkaline earth Mg on solution-processed kesterite solar cells, increasing the efficiency of PV-devices especially by adding Li (efficiencies higher than 11 %) and Na, during her stay at EMPA in 2016. More recently, a relationship between Na concentration and the incorporation of S into the co-evaporated CZTSe lattice has been found. This fact is very important to develop the appropriated S-gradient to increase the PV parameters. The development of a new co-evaporation system has given the group great versatility in the investigation of the improvement of these materials.

Since the last year the group is also working on wide gap chalcopyrite materials to use them for new multi-junction devices on different substrates and materials. In addition, other alternatives to kesterite have also been investigated in the group such as SnS(Se), an abundant material in the earth's crust and of less manufacturing complexity.

The development in the group laboratories of new technical equipment for materials growth affords to open other ways in the solar cells research. Its expertise also includes the characterization of the structural and optoelectronic properties of the thin films and solar cells by similar techniques as above mentioned. The wide set of experimental techniques is available thanks both to the laboratories at disposal of the group at Universidad Autónoma de Madrid as the establishment of collaborations with several institutions in Spain and other European countries. Finally, it is important to mention that the members of the Group of Photovoltaic Materials are frequent users of systems of measurement and characterization typical of large facilities, such as synchrotrons (European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, ESRF), linear accelerators (Center for Microanalysis of Materials, CMAM) and nuclear reactors (Institut Laue-Langevin, ILL, Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin, BERII) that allow to complete and deepen the most routine characterizations.

Last 5 years publications and most cited

(current and previous members of the group are underlined)

Journal publications

  1. O. DachraouiJ. M. Merino,  A. Mami,  M. León, · R. Caballero,· H. Maghraoui‑Meherzi, Annealing study and thermal investigation on bismuth sulfide thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition in basic medium. Applied Physics A, 124 (2018) 166:https://doi.org/10.1007/s00339-018-1584-7
  2. Carlos A Durante Rincón, Larissa T Durán, Josefa Estévez Medina, Jaime A Castro, Máximo León, Jose R Fermín, Structural and optical properties of AgIn5S8, International Journal of Modern Physics B: 31, Julio 2017 ,DOI: 10.1142/S0217979217502460
  3. J.M. Cano Torres; R Caballero; I Victorov; M León; E García Llamas; V.O. Yukhymchuk; A.M. Yaremko; Ye.O. Havryliuk; I Bodnar; J.M. Merino. Raman characterization and modelling of Cu2ZnSn1-xGexS4 single crystals grown using chemical vapor transport. Optical Materials. 66 (2017) 671 - 677.
  4. M.O. Semenenko, I.S. Babichuk, O. Kyriienko, I.V. Bodnar, R. Caballero, M. León, RF Electromagnetic field treatment of tetragonal kesterite CZTSSe light absorbers. Nanoscale Research Letters 12 (1) (2017) 408.
  5. E. García-Llamas, J.M. Merino, R. Gunder, K. Neldner, D. Greiner, A. Steigert, S. Giraldo, V. Izquierdo-Roca, E. Saucedo, M. León, S. Schorr, R. Caballero, Cu2ZnSnS4 thin film solar cells grown by fast thermal evaporation and thermal treatment, Solar Energy 141 (2017) 236-241.
  6. E. García Llamas; M. Guc; I.V. Bodnar; X. Fontané; R. Caballero; J.M. Merino; M. León; V. Izquierdo Roca. Multiwavelength excitation Raman scattering of Cu2ZnSn1-xGex(S,Se)4 single crystals for earth abundant photovoltaic applications. Journal of Alloys and Compounds. 692 (2017) 249 - 256.
  7. S López Marino; M. Espíndola Rodríguez; Y. Sánchez; X. Alcobé; F. Oliva; H. Xie; M. Neuschitzer; S. Giraldo; M. Placidi; R. Caballero; V. Izquierdo Roca; A. Pérez Rodríguez; E. Saucedo. The importance of back contact modification in Cu2ZnSnSe4 solar cells: The role of a thin MoO2 layer. Nano Energy. 26 (2016) 708 - 721.
  8. Raquel Caballero, Victor Condé; Máximo León. SnS thin films grown by sulfurization of evaporated Sn layers: Effect of sulfurization temperature and pressure. Thin Solid Films. 612 (2016) 202 - 207.
  9. E. Garcia-Llamas, J.M. Merino, R. Serna, X. Fontané, I.A. Victorov, A. Pérez-Rodríguez, M. León, I.V. Bodnar, V. Izquierdo-Roca, R. Caballero, Wide band-gap tuning Cu2ZnSn1-xGexS4 single cystals: Optical and vibrational properties, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 158 (2016) 147-153.
  10. D Abou-Ras; R Caballero; C Streeck; B Beckhoff; J-H In; S Jeong. Comprehensive comparison of various techniques for the analysis of elemental distributions in thin films: Additional techniques. Microscopy and Microanalysis. Cambridge University Press, 2015. DOI: 10.1017/S1431927615015093.
  11. S. Levcenko, R. Caballero, L. Dermenji, E. V. Telesh, I. A. Victorov, J. M. Merino, E. Arushanov, M. León, I. Bodnar,
  12. R. Caballero, J.M. Cano-Torres, E. Garcia-Llamas, X. Fontane, A. Perez-Rodriguez, D. Greiner, C.A. Kaufmann, J.M. Merino, J. Victorov, G. Baraldi, M. Valakh, I. Bodnar, V. Izquierdo-Roca, M. Leon. Towards the growth of Cu2ZnSn1-xGexS4 thin films by a single-stage process: Effect of substrate temperature and composition, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 139 (2015) 1-9.
  13. I. S. Babichuk, V. O. Yukhymchuk, M. O. Semenenko, N. I. Klyui, R. Caballero, O. M. Hreshchuk, I. S. Lemishko, I. V. Babichuk, V. O. Ganus, M. León, Optical and morphological properties of tetragonal Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films grown from sulphide precursors at lower temperatures, Semiconductor Physics, Quantum Electronics and Optoelectronics 17 (2014) 284-290.
  14. A. U. Sheleg, V. G. Hurtavy, A. V. Mudryi, M. Ya. Valakh, V. O. Yukhymchuk, I. S. Babichuk, M. León, R. Caballero, Determination of the structural and optical characteristics of Cu2ZnSnS4 semiconductor thin films, Semiconductors 48 (2014) 1296-1302.
  15. R. Caballero, I. Victorov, R. Serna, J. M. Cano-Torres, C. Maffiotte, E. Garcia-Llamas, J. M. Merino, M. Valakh, I. Bodnar, M. León, Band-gap engineering of Cu2ZnSn1-XGeXS4 single crystals and influence of the surface properties, Acta Materialia 79 (2014) 181-187.
  16. M. León, S. Levcenko, R. Serna, I. V. Bodnar, A. Nateprov, M. Guc, G. Gurieva, N. López, J. M. Merino, R. Caballero, S. Schorr, A. Pérez-Rodríguez, E. Arushanov, Spectroscopic ellipsometry study of Cu2ZnSnSe4 bulk crystals, Applied Physics Letters 105 (2014) 061909.
  17. A. Climent-Font, R. Caballero, E. Punzón-Quijorna, J. M. Merino, M. León, Deviations from Rutherford elastic scattering cross sections for Cu and Zn with He ions, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physical Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 332 (2014) 191-194.
  18. H. Mönig, D. Lockhom, N. Aghdassi, A. Timmer, C.A. Kaufmann, R. Caballero, H. Zacharias, H. Fuchs, Advanced Materials Interfaces 1 (2014) 1300040.
  19. A. G. Karydas, I. Bogdanovic Radovic, C. Streeck, C.Kaufmann, R. Caballero, T. Rissom, B. Kanngießer, B. Beckhoff, M. Jaksic, N. P. Barradas, In - depth elemental characterization of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells by means of RBS and PIXE techniques, Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 331 (2014) 93-95.
  20. R. Caballero, E. Garcia-Llamas, J.M. Merino, M. León, I. Babichuk, V. Dzhagan, V. Strelchuk, M. Valakh, Non-stoichiometry effect and disorder in Cu2ZnsnS4 thin films obtained by flash evaporation: Raman scattering investigation, Acta Materialia 65 (2014) 412-417.
  21. M. Guc, R. Caballero, K.G. Lisunov, N. López, E. Arushanov, J.M. Merino, M. León, Disorder and variable-range hopping conductivity in Cu2ZnsnS4 thin films prepared by flash evaporation and post-thermal treatment, Journal of Alloys and Compounds 596 (2014) 140-144.
  22. J. Kavalakkatt, D. Abou-Ras, J. Haarstrich, C. Ronning, M. Nichterwitz, R. Caballero, T. Rissom, T. Unold, R. Scheer, H.W. Schock, Electron-beam-induced current at absorber back surface of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin-film solar cells, Journal of Applied Physics 65 (2014) 412-417.
  23. R. Caballero, M. Nichterwitz, A. Steigert, A. Eicke, I. Lauermann, H.W. Schock, C.A. Kaufmann, Impact of Na on MoSe2 formation at the CIGSe/Mo interface in thin film solar cells on polyimide foil at low process temperatures, Acta Materialia 63 (2014) 54-62.
  24. J.G. Albornoz , R.M. Rojas, J.M. Merino , M. León, Structural,thermal and electrical properties of the semiconductor system Ag(1_x)CuXInSe2, Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids: 75 (2014) 1-7
  25. C. García, A. Bollero, E. J. Friedrich, M. León, M. T. Gutiérrez and J. de Abajo, Preparation and characterization of Mo thin films onto novel polyimide composites, Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids: 74 (2013) 702.
  26. M. León, S. Levcenko, R. Serna, A. Nateprov, G. Gurieva, J. M. Merino, S. Schorr and E. Arushanov, Spectroscopic ellipsometry study of Cu2ZnGeSe4 and Cu2ZnSiSe4 Poly-crystals, Materials Chemistry and Physics141(2013) 58
  27. R. Caballero, C.A. Kaufmann, V. Efimova, T. Rissom, V. Hoffmann, H.W. Schock, Investigation of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film formation during the multi-stage co-evaporation process, Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications 1 (2013) 30-46.
  28. R. Caballero, V. Izquierdo-Roca, J.M. Merino, E.J. Friedrich, A. Climent-Font, E. Saucedo, A. Pérez-Rodríguez, M. León, Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films grown by flash evaporation and subsequent annealing in Ar atmosphere, Thin Solid Films 535 (2013) 62-66.
  29. M. Nichterwitz, R. Caballero, C.A. Kaufmann, H.W. Schock, T. Unold, Generation-dependent charge carrier transport in Cu(In,Ga)Se2/CdS/ZnO thin-film solar cells, Journal of Applied Physics 113 (2013) 044515.
  30. G. Gurieva, S. Levcenko , S. Schorr, M. León and E. Arushanov, Characterization of Cu2SnSe4 by spectroscopic ellipsometry, Thin Solid Films 535 (2013). 384
  31. H. Rodriguez-Álvarez, R. Mainz, R. Caballero, D. Abou-Ras, M. Klaus, S. Gledhill, A. Weber, C. A. Kaufmann, H. W. Schock, Real-time study of Ga diffusion processes during the formation of Cu(In,Ga)Se2: the role of Cu and Na content, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 116 (2013) 102-109.
  32. M León, S Levcenko, R Serna, G Gurieva, A Nateprov, JM Merino, E.J. Friedrich, U. Fillat, S. Schorr & E. Arushanov. Optical constants of Cu2ZnGeS4 bulk crystals. Journal of Applied Physics 108 (9), (2010) 093502         
  33.  JG Albornoz, R Serna & M León. Optical properties and electronic structure of polycrystalline Ag1−x Cux In Se 2 alloys. Journal of applied physics 97 (10), (2005) 103515
  34.  MI Alonso, M Garriga, CAD Rincón, E Hernández, M León. Optical functions of chalcopyrite CuGaxIn1-xSe2 alloys.  Applied Physics A 74 (5) (2002), 659-664
  35. CAD Rincón, E Hernández, MI Alonso, M Garriga, SM Wasim, C Rincón & M. León. Optical transitions near the band edge in bulk CuInxGa1− xSe2 from ellipsometric measurements. Materials Chemistry and Physics 70 (3) (2001), 300-304
  36. JM Merino, S Mahanty, M León, R Diaz, F Rueda, JLM De Vidales, Structural characterization of CuIn2Se3. 5, CuIn3Se5 and CuIn5Se8 compounds. Thin Solid Films 361 (2000) 70-73
  37. MI Alonso, M Garriga, CA Durante Rincón, M León. Optical properties of chalcopyrite CuAl x In 1− x Se 2 alloys. Journal of Applied Physics 88 (10),(2000) 5796-5801
  38.  S Mahanty, D Basak, F Rueda, M Leon. Optical properties of chemical bath deposited CdS thin films. Journal of Electronic Materials 28 (5) (1999), 559-562
  39. JM Merino, JL Martín de Vidales, S Mahanty, R Díaz, F Rueda, M León. Composition effects on the crystal structure of CuInSe2 .Journal of Applied Physics 80 (10), (1996) 5610-5616

Book chpaters

- Volker Hoffmann, Denis Klemm, Varvara Brackmann, Cornel Venzago, Angus A Rockett, Thomas Wirth, Tim Nunney, Christian A Kaufmann, Raquel Caballero, Oana Cojocaru‐Mirédin. Chapter: Accessing Elemental Distributions in Thin Films for Solar Cells, Book: Advanced Characterization Techniques for Thin Film Solar Cells, p. 523-567,: Editorial: Wiley‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2016.

Experimentation of industrial prototypes

  • Pulsed cell for evaporation of Se. Nano4Energy. R. Caballero, M. León (from UAM), Iván Fernández (from Nano4Energy). 2014-2016.
  • Selective sensor for Se and S. Nano4Energy. R. Caballero, M. León (from UAM), Iván Fernández (from Nano4Energy). 2016.

Projects in the last 5 years

  1. H2020-MSCA-RISE-2017-777968, International cooperation for the development of cost-efficient kesterite/c-Si thin film next generation tandem solar cells (INFINITE-CELL), 2017. Entity: European Commission. IPs: Edgardo Saucedo Silva (IP at UAM: José Manuel Merino Álvarez).
  2. ENE2016-80788-C5-2-R, Tecnologías de calcogenuros de banda prohibida ancha para aplicaciones de energía solar de bajo coste y alta eficiencia (WINCOST), Entity: Plan Nacional de I+D+i, Retos de la Sociedad 2016, IPs: José Manuel Merino Álvarez, Ana Raquel Caballero Mesa, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 30/12/2016-29/12/2019, 115.000 Euros.
  3. ENE2013-49136-C4-3-R, Tecnologías fotovoltaicas sostenibles de bajo coste y alta eficiencia para nuevos módulos solares basados en elementos abundantes en la corteza terrestre (SUNBEAM), Entity: Plan Nacional de I+D+I 2013-2016, Retos de la sociedad 2013, IPs: José Manuel Merino Álvarez, Ana Raquel Caballero Mesa, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 01/01/2014-31/12/2016, 130.000 Euros.
  4. CAS15/00070, Efecto de  los elementos alcalinos, Li, Na y K, sobre láminas delgadas de kesterita Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 y dispositivos fotovoltaicos basados en la misma, Entity: Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte, Programa José Castillejo call 2015, IP: Ana Raquel Caballero Mesa, EMPA- Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology (ETH Domain), 05/2016-08/2016.
  5. 57050358, Interface engineeering for kesterite thin film solar cells (INTERKEST), Entity: DAAD, Acciones conjuntas hispano-alemanas/PPP-Spain, call 2013, IP: Ana Raquel Caballero Mesa, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, (Susan Schorr at HZB), 01/01/2014-31/12/2015, 13.045 Euros.
  6. FP7-PEOPLE-2012-ITN-316488, Training for sustainable low cost PV technologies: development of kesterite based efficient solar cells (KESTCELLS), Entity: European Commission, Marie Curie Action Calls, call 2012, IP: Edgardo Saucedo Silva, IREC (IP at UAM: Máximo León Macarrón), 01/09/2012-31/08/2016, 3.705.320,08 Euros,
  7. PEOPLE-2010-IRSES-269167, International Cooperative Program for Photovoltaic Kesterite-based technologies (PVICOKEST), Entity: European Commission, IP: Máximo León Macarrón, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 01/03/2011-28/02/2015, 180.500 Euros.
  8. ENE-2010-21541-C03-03, Desarrollo de células solares eficientes basadas en Kesteritas para tecnologías sostenibles fotovoltaicas de bajo coste (KEST-PV), Entity: Plan Nacional I+D+I 2010-2013, call 2010, IP: Máximo León Macarrón, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 01/01/2011-31/12/2013, 153.670 Euros.
  9. RYC-2011-08521, New materials and new designs of solar cells for sustainable low cost photovoltaic technologies: kesterite thin films and plasmonic photovoltaics. Entity: Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness, Programa Ramón y Cajal, call 2011. IP: Ana Raquel Caballero Mesa. Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. 01/01/2012-31/12/2016.

Highlighted oral/invited communications at conferences/workshops in the last 5 years

  • Incorporation of S on co-evaported Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin film solar cells, L. de la Cueva, Y. Sánchez,F. Oliva, V. Izquierdo-Roca, S. Khelifi, L. Calvo-Barrio, J.M. Merino, M. León, R. Caballero, 8th European Kesterite Workshop, Barcelona, Spain, 2017.
  • The effect of sulfurization on co-evaported Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin film solar cells, R. Caballero, L. de la Cueva, Y. Sánchez,F. Oliva, V. Izquierdo-Roca, M. Placidi,  J.M. Merino, M. León, Euromat 2017, Thessaloniki, Greece, 2017.
  • The influence of Ge on kesterite solar cells, L. de la Cueva, A. González, Y. Sánchez, J.M. Merino, M. León, R. Caballero, Nextgen 2017, Mallorca, Spain, 2017.
  • Alkali treatment of solution-processed kesterite solar cells, S.G. Haass, R. Caballero, C. Andres, Y.E. Romanyuk, A.N. Tiwari, Materials Research Society Spring Meeting, Phoenix, USA, 2017.
  • Alkali doping in solution processed kesterite solar cells, S.G. Haass, R. Caballero, C. Andres, Y.E. Romanyuk, A.N. Tiwari, 7th European Kesterite Workshop, Louvain, Belgium, 2016.
  • Wide band-gap tuning of Cu2ZnSn1-xGex(S, Se)4 solid solutions for photovoltaic multi-junction devices development: A sutdy of their optical, structural and vibrational properties, E. Garcia-Llamas, X. Fontané, R. Serna, I. Victorov, J.M. Merino, M. Guc, M. Valakh, M. León, I. Bodnar, V. Izqueirdo-Roca, R. Caballero, Materials Research Society Spring Meeting, San Francisco, USA, 2015.
  • Structural and optical characterization of Cu2ZnGexSn1-x(S,Se)4 compoundsE Garcia Llamas; R Caballero; I Victorov; A. Nicorici, I Bodnar, E. ArushanovM León and JM Merino. 7th International Conference on Materials Science and Condensed Matter Physics (MSCMP 2014)Chisinau, Moldova, September 2014. Invited
  • Investigation of SnS thin films prepared by a two-step process for photovoltaic applications, R. Caballero, V. Condé, E. Garcia-Llamas, J.M. Merino, M. León, 9th International Conference on Surfaces, coatings and nanostructured materials (Nanosmat), Dublín, Irlanda, 2014.
  • Cu2ZnSn1-xGexS4 thin films grown by flash evaporation and thermal treatment, R. Caballero, J.M. Cano-Torres, N. López, J.M. Merino, M. León, I. Victorov, M. Novikova, I. Bodnar, I. Babichuk, V. Yukhimchuk, M. Y. Valakh, V. Izquierdo-Roca, A. Pérez-Rodriguez, C.A. Kaufmann, EUROMAT, Sevilla, 2013.
  • Effect of Na on Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells, R. Caballero, European Inducis Workshop, Barcelona, December 2012. Invited.
  • Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films grown by physical vapour deposition for sustainable low cost photovoltaic technologiesR. Caballero, J.M. Merino, E.J. Friedrich, N. López, K. Puschkarsky, M. León, 6th International Conference on Materials Science and Condensed Matter Physics (MSCMP 2012), Chisinau (Moldova) september 2012. Invited.

Colaborations with different entities

  • Instituto de Óptica Daza de Valdés, CSIC; Madrid. Prof. Rosalía Serna y Dr. José Gonzalo.
  • Instituto de Microelectrónica de Madrid, CSIC; Prof. Fernando Briones.
  • Nano4Energy (company), Madrid. Dr. Iván Fernández.
  • IREC, Barcelona. Prof. Alejandro Pérez Rodríguez, Dr. Edgardo Saucedo, Dr. Victor Izquierdo
  • Universidad de Barcelona, Facultad de Física, Dr. Lorenzo Calvo Barrio
  • Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie (HZB). Dr. Christian Kaufmann, Prof. Susan Schorr, Dr. Thomas Unold.
  • EMPA (Dübendorf). Prof. A. N. Tiwari, Dr. Yaroslav Romanyuk.
  • Universitat Jaume I, Castellón, Prof. Juan Cardá.
  • University of Ghent, Dr. Samira Khelifi.
  • Institute of Applied Physics of Academy of Science, Chisinau, Moldova. Prof. Dr. Academic Ernest Arushanov.
  • V. Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine. Prof. Michael Valakh, Dr. M.O. Semenenko
  • Belarussian State University of Informatics and Radioelectronics. Prof. Ivan Bodnar.
  • Université de Tunis El Manar, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique et Electrochimie. Prof. H. Maghraoui Meherzi.
  • Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador. Dr. Carlos A. Durante Rincón
  • Universidad del Zulia. Maracaibo. Venezuela. Dr. Carlos A. Durante Rincón y Elvis Hernández
  • Universidad de Carabobo. Valencia. Venezuela. Dr. Gregorio Albornoz.

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